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Eubacteria (true bacteria)

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Classification

The classification below is based on Garrity et al. (2001). In groups with only a few genera some of the levels in the classification have been excluded.

  • Phylum: Aquificae (5 genera). Thermophilic, associated mainly with hot springs. Can live at very high temperatures. For instance, members of the genus Aquifex grow best at 85C and can grow at temperatures up to 95C.
  • Phylum: Thermotogae (5 genera). Thermophilic. Found in geothermally heated soils and marine sediments.
  • Phylum: Thermodesulfobacteria (1 genus: Thermodesulfobacterium)
  • Phylum: "Deinococcus-Thermus" (3 genera). 
    • Deinococcus .  Aerobic, mesophilic heterotrophs that occur in clouds and rainwater and which can spoil food. They are highly resistant to gamma and X-rays because they have a very efficient DNA repair system.
    • Thermus. Thermophilic heterotrophs found in warm water environments especially hot springs. Source of Taq polymerase used in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which has revolutionised molecular biology because it enables DNA to be replicated in large quantities. 
  • Phylum: Chrysiogenetes (1 genus: Chrysiogenes)
  • Phylum: Chloroflexi (5 genera)
    • Chloroflexus. Live in ponds.
    • Herpetosiphon. Common soil organisms (obligate aerobic heterotrophs)
  • Phylum: Thermomicrobia (1 genus: Thermomicrobium)
  • Phylum: Nitrospira (4 genera)
  • Phylum: Deferribacteres (5 genera)
  • Phylum: Cyanobacteria (57 genera)
    • Anabaena. Founds in ponds; can fix carbon and nitrogen from atmosphere.
    • Gloeocapsa. Common in ponds and aquaria.
    • Nostoc. An intracellular endosymbiont in Geomycetes fungi.
  • Phylum: Chlorobi (5 genera) Green sulphur bacteria. Common in freshwater and marine sediments.
    • Chlorobium. Lives in ponds; needs sulphur to live.
  • Phylum: Proteobacteria (441 genera)
    • Class: "Alphaproteobacteria"
      • Order: Rhodospirillales
        • Family: Rhodospirillaceae
        • Family: Acetobacteraceae
      • Order: Rickettsiales
        • Family: Rickettsiaceae (3 genera)
          • Genus: Rickettsia. Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus. Rickettsia mooseri causes endemic or murine typhus.
        • Family: Ehrlichiaceae
        • Family: "Holosporaceae"
      • Order: "Rhodobacterales"
      • Order: Sphingomonadales
      • Order: Caulobacterales
      • Order: Rhizobiales
        • Family: Rhizobiaceae
        • Family: Bartonellaceae
        • Family: Brucellaceae
        • Family: "Phyllobacteriaceae"
        • Family: "Methylocystaceae"
        • Family: "Beijerinckiaceae"
        • Family: "Bradyrhizobiaceae"
        • Family: Hyphomicrobiaceae
        • Family: "Methylobacteriaceae"
        • Family: "Rhodobiaceae"
    • Class: "Betaproteobacteria"
      • Order: "Burkholderiales"
        • Family: "Burkholderiaceae"
        • Family: "Ralstoniaceae"
        • Family: "Oxalobacteriaceae"
        • Family: Alcaligenaceae
        • Family: Comamonadaceae
      • Order: "Hydrogenophilales
      • Order: "Methylophilales"
      • Order: "Neisseriales"
      • Order: "Nitrosomonadales"
      • Order: "Rhodocyclales"
    • Class: "Gammaproteobacteria"
      • Order: "Chromatiales"
        • Family: Chromatiaceae
        • Family: Ectothiorhodospiraceae
      • Order: Acidithiobacillales
      • Order: "Xanthomonadales"
      • Order: "Cardiobacteriales"
      • Order: "Thiotrichales"
        • Family: "Thiotrichaceae"
        • Family: "Piscirickettsiaceae"
        • Family: "Francisellaceae"
      • Order: "Legionellales"
      • Order: "Methylococcales"
      • Order: "Oceanspirillales"
        • Family: Oceanospirillaceae
        • Family: Halomonadaceae
      • Order: Pseudomonadales
        • Family: Pseudomonadaceae
        • Family: Moraxellaceae
      • Order: "Alteromonadales"
      • Order: "Vibrionales"
      • Order: "Aeromonadales"
        • Family: Aeromonadaceae
        • Family: Succinivibrionaceae
      • Order: "Enterobacteriales"
      • Order: "Pasteurellales"
    • Class: "Deltaproteobacteria"
      • Order: "Desulfurellales"
      • Order: "Desulfovibrionales"
      • Order: "Desulfobacterales"
        • Family: "Desulfobacteraceae"
        • Family: "Desulfobulbaceae"
        • Family: "Nitrospinaceae"
      • Order: "Desulfuromonadales"
      • Order: "Syntrophobacterales"
      • Order: "Bdellovibrionales"
      • Order: Myxococcales
    • Class: "Epsilonproteobacteria"
  • Phylum: Firmicutes (184 genera)
    • Class: "Clostridia"
      • Order: Clostridiales
        • Family: Clostridiaceae
        • Family: "Lachnospiraceae"
        • Family: "Peptostreptococcaceae"
        • Family: "Eubacteriaceae"
        • Family: Peptococcaceae
        • Family: "Heliobacteriaceae"
        • Family: "Acidaminococcaceae"
        • Family: Syntrophomonadaceae
      • Order: "Thermoanaerobacteriales"
      • Order: Haloanaerobiales
    • Class: Mollicutes
      • Order: Mycoplasmatales
      • Order: Entomoplasmatales
      • Order: Acholeplasmatales
      • Order: Anaeroplasmataceae
    • Class: "Bacilli"
      • Order: Bacillales
        • Family: Bacillaceae
        • Family: Planococcaceae
        • Family: Caryophanaceae
        • Family: "Listeriaceae"
        • Family: "Staphylococcaceae"
        • Family: "Sporolactobacillaceae"
        • Family: "Paenibacillaceae"
        • Family: "Alicyclobacillaceae"
        • Family: "Thermoactinomycetaceae" 
      • Order: "Lactobacillales"
        • Family: Lactobacillaceae
        • Family: "Aerococcaceae"
        • Family: "Carnobacteriaceae"
        • Family: "Enterococcaceae"
        • Family: "Leuconostocaceae"
        • Family: Streptococcaceae 
  • Phylum and class: Actinobacteria (139 genera)
    • Order: Acidimicrobiales. One genus: Acidimicrobium
    • Order: Rubrobacterales. One genus: Rubrobacter
    • Order: Coriobacteriales
    • Order: Sphaerobacterales One genus: Sphaerobacter
    • Order: Actinomycetales
      • Family: Actinomycetaceae
      • Family: Micrococcaceae. Includes Arthrobacter which is claimed to be the most common soil organism.
      • Family: Bogoriellaceae. One genus: Bogoriella
      • Family: Rarobacteraceae. One genus: Rarobacter
      • Family: Sanguibacteraceae. One genus: Sanguibacter
      • Family: Brevibacteriaceae. One genus: Brevibacterium
      • Family: Cellulomonadaceae. Two genera: Cellulomonas and Oerskovia
      • Family: Dermabacteraceae. Two genera: Dermabacter and Brachybacterium
      • Family: Dermatophilaceae. One genus: Dermatophilus
      • Family: Dermacoccaceae
      • Family: Intrasporangiaceae
      • Family: Jonesiaceae. One genus: Jonesia
      • Family: Microbacteriaceae
      • Family: "Beutenbergiaceae". One genus: Beutenbergia
      • Family: Promicromonosporaceae. One genus: Promicromonospora
      • Family: Corynebacteriaceae. One genus: Corynebacterium
      • Family: Dietziaceae. One genus: Dietzia
      • Family: Gordoniaceae. Two genera: Gordonia and Skermania
      • Family: Mycobacteriaceae. One genus: Mycobacterium
        • Genus: Mycobacterium. There are about 55 species of Mycobacterium associated with infections in people. For instance, Mycobacterium leprae causes the disease leprosy; M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. africanum cause tuberculosis.
      • Family: Nocardiaceae. Two genera: Nocardia and Rhodococcus
      • Family: Tsukamurellaceae. One genus: Tsukamurella.
      • Family: Williamsiaceae. One genus: Williamsia
      • Family: Micromonosporaceae
      • Family: Propionibacteriaceae. Includes Propionibacterium acne lives on human skin and produces propionic acid which stops growth of other, unwanted, microbes.
      • Family: Nocardioidaceae
      • Family: Pseudonocardiaceae
      • Family: Actinosynnemataceae
      • Family: Streptomycetaceae
      • Family: Streptosporangiaceae
      • Family: Nocardiopsaceae. Two genera: Nocardiopsis and Thermobifida
      • Family: Thermomonosporaceae
      • Family: Frankiaceae. One genus: Frankia.
      • Family: Geodermatophilaceae
      • Family: Microsphaeraceae
      • Family: Sporichthyaceae. One genus: Sporichthya
      • Family: Acidothermaceae. One genus: Acidothermus
      • Family: "Kineosporiaceae"
      • Family: Glycomycetaceae. One genus: Glycomyces
    • Order: Bifidobacteriales
      • Family: Bifidobacteriaceae. Bifidobacterium is especially abundant in the intestines of newborn, milk-fed infants.
  • Phylum: Planctomycetes (4 genera). Free-living aquatic oligotrophs that have never been cultivated.
  • Phylum: Chlamydiae (5 genera). Obligate intracellular parasites that rely on the host cell for amino acids, vitamins, DNA/RNA precursors and ATP.
    • Genus: Chlamydia. C. trachomatis causes a human venereal disease.
    • Genus: Chlamydophila. C. pneumoniae (= Chlamidia pneumoniae) causes chest infections.
  • Phylum: Spirochaetes (13 genera). Some are pathogens, but most are free-living.
    • Genus: Borrelia. Transmitted by arthropods. Borrelia recurrentis causes Louse-borne Relapsing Fever.
    • Genus: Treponema. Treponema pallidum is the cause of syphilis.
    • Genus: Leptospira. Causes leptospirosis in animals and humans.
  • Phylum: Fibrobacteres (1 genus: Fibrobacter)
  • Phylum: Acidobacteria (3 genera)
  • Phylum: Bacteroidetes (53 genera)
    • Class: Bacteroidetes
    • Class: "Flavobacteria". Free-living or mammalian mucous-membrane flora. Obligately aerobic. Very common in aerobic environments.
    • Class: "Sphingobacteria"
      • Family: Sphingobacteriaceae. Two genera: Sphingobacterium and Pedobacter.
      • Family: "Saprospiraceae"
      • Family: "Flexibacteraceae"
      • Family: "Flammeovirgaceae"
      • Family: Crenotrichaceae
  • Phylum: Fusobacteria (7 genera)
  • Phylum: Verrucomicrobia (3 genera)
  • Phylum: Dictyoglomus (only 1 genus: Dictyoglomus)

References

  • Garrity, G.M., Winters, M. & Searles, D.B. 2001. Taxonomic outline of the procaryotic genera. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition. Release 1.0, April 2001.
  • Werren, J.H. 1997. Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 587-609.
Compiled by Hamish Robertson

Copyright 2003, Iziko Museums of Cape Town

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